IDRA Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program Tutors Share Stories of the Program’s Impact on Their Lives
Six Young Tutors Win 2017 National Essay Contest Awards
The winners are…
- First Place High School Winner – Ana Luisa Valenzuela, 12th Grade, Odessa High School, Ector County ISD, Texas
- Second Place High School Winner – Anahi Ayala, 12th Grade, Odessa High School, Ector County ISD, Texas
- Third Place High School Winner – Esmeray Olivas, 12th Grade, Odessa High School, Ector County ISD, Texas
- First Place Middle School Winner – Jimena Guerrero, 8th Grade, Zamora Middle School, South San Antonio ISD, Texas
- Second Place Middle School Winner – Jennifer Vela, 7th Grade, Domingo Treviño Middle School, La Joya ISD, Texas
- Third Place Middle School Winner – Lilibeth Berlanga, 7th Grade, Memorial Middle School, La Joya ISD, Texas
High School Honorable Mentions
- Nohemi Gavaldon, 12th Grade, Odessa High School, Ector County ISD, Texas
- Bryanna Menchaca, 10th Grade, South San Antonio High School, Texas
Middle School Honorable Mentions
- Daniella McBryde, 8th Grade, Zamora Middle School, San Antonio
- Yuliana Calvillo, 7th Grade, Memorial Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Gerardo Rodríguez, 7th Grade, César Chávez Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Yahlitza Rosales, 8th Grade, Lorenzo De Zavala Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Daisy García, 7th Grade, Domingo Treviño Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Jeffry Rios, 9th Grade, New Open World Academy, Los Angeles
- Mellene Heart Del Mundo, 8th Grade, John Still Middle School, Sacramento
- Yarmell Ruffin, 8th Grade, Manierre Elementary School, Chicago
- Khadija Begum, 8th Grade, Captain Manuel Rivera, Jr. PS/MS279, New York City
Elementary School Winners
While not yet in middle school, fifth grade tutors in the Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program at PS94 Kings College School in New York City wrote their own essays. Below are the top scorers.
- First Place Elementary School – J’sean Johnson
- Second Place Elementary School – Liju Sheikh
- Third Place Elementary School – Karla Llerena
- Fourth Place Elementary School – Alijah Coles
- Fifth Place Elementary School – Sebastian Davis
- Elementary School Honorable Mention – Joshua Ruiz
See the press release.
See color highlights flier for 2017 (pdf).
See the booklet with all the winning essays from 2017 (pdf).
Six Teens Win 2016 National Essay Contest Awards
The winners are:
- First Place High School Winner – Stefan García, 12th Grade, Odessa High School, Texas
- Second Place High School Winner – Irma Tinoco, 11th Grade, Odessa High School, Texas
- Third Place High School Winner – April Bermea, 11th Grade, South San Antonio High School, Texas
- First Place Middle School Winner – Alexandra Sánchez, 8th Grade, MS 331 The Bronx School of Young Leaders, New York City
- Second Place Middle School Winner – Mykel Jones, 8th Grade, John Still K-8 School, Sacramento
- Third Place Middle School Winner – Melakii Uribe, 8th Grade, Robert C. Zamora Middle School, Texas
High School Honorable Mentions
- Isabel Martínez, 10th Grade, South San Antonio High School, Texas
- Jessica Suchil, 12th Grade, Odessa High School, Texas
Middle School Honorable Mentions
- Sabrina Alemán, 8th Grade, Dwight Middle School, San Antonio
- Lesly Barba, 7th Grade, César Chávez Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Mittzi Cantú, 7th Grade, Dr. Javier Saenz Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Mariah De Luna, 8th Grade, Zamora Middle School, San Antonio
- Brittney Fernández, 7th Grade, Irene M. García Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Shannon Holmes, 7th Grade, Carstens Elementary-Middle School, Detroit
- Jeffrey Rios, 8th Grade, New Open World Academy, Los Angeles
- Mabel Rivera, 8th Grade, MS 331 The Bronx School of Young Leaders, New York City
- Aria Russell, 8th Grade, John Still K-8 School, Sacramento
- Nikaulis Taveras, 8th Grade, Captain Manuel Rivera, Jr. PS/MS279, New York City
- Anai Treviño, 7th Grade, Domingo Treviño Middle School, La Joya, Texas
While not yet in middle school, fifth grade tutors in the Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program PS94 Kings College School in New York City wrote their own essays. Below are the top three scorers.
- First Place Elementary School – Abdul Abdulai
- Second Place Elementary School – Brian Martínez
- Third Place Elementary School – Skylah Nix
Read the full news release (2016).
See color highlights flier (2016).
See all the winning essays from 2016.
See the winning elementary school essays from 2016.
Six Teens Win 2015 National Essay Contest Awards
The winners are:
- First Place High School Winner – Nathaniel Duarte, 11th Grade, Odessa High School, Ector County ISD, Texas
- Second Place High School Winner – Jerelie Márquez, 12th Grade, Odessa High School, Ector County ISD, Texas
- Third Place High School Winner – Mónica Pando, 11th Grade, Odessa High School, Ector County ISD, Texas
- First Place Middle School Winner – Agustina García, 7th Grade, Dr. Javier Saenz Middle School, La Joya ISD, Texas
- Second Place Middle School Winner – José Rodríguez, 8th Grade, Captain Manuel Rivera, Jr. PS/MS279, New York City
- Third Place Middle School Winner – Johan Servones, 8th Grade, Captain Manuel Rivera, Jr. PS/MS279, New York City
High School Honorable Mentions
- Desiree Salazar – 9th Grade • South San Antonio High School • San Antonio
Middle School Honorable Mentions
- Esmeralda Concha – 7th Grade • Memorial Middle School • La Joya, Texas
- Ashley Franco – 8th Grade • New Open World Academy • Los Angeles
- Natalie García – 7th Grade • Ann Richards Middle School • La Joya, Texas
- Kimberly López – 7th Grade • César Chávez Middle School • La Joya, Texas
- Alex Peña – 6th Grade • Domingo Treviño Middle School • La Joya, Texas
- Teyundra Robinson – 8th Grade • George Manierre K-8 School • Chicago
- Tameya Stringer – 8th Grade • Carstens Elementary-Middle School • Detroit
- Jalil Tenner – 8th Grade • John Still K-8 School • Sacramento
Read the full news release (2015).
See color highlights flier (2015).
See all the winning essays from 2015.
Six Teens Win 2014 National Essay Contest Awards
The winners are:
- First Place High School Winner – Michaela Valdez, 9th Grade, South San Antonio High School
- Second Place High School Winner – Nicholas Alderete, 9th Grade, South San Antonio High School
- Third Place High School Winner – Melina Martinez, 9th Grade, South San Antonio High School
- First Place Middle School Winner – Christian Ortiz, 7th Grade, Domingo Treviño Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Second Place Middle School Winner – Gisel Salinas, 7th Grade, Dr. Javier Saenz Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Third Place Middle School Winner – Johan Servones, 7th Grade, Captain Manuel Rivera, Jr. PS/MS279, New York City
High School Honorable Mentions
- Brooke Johnston, 12th Grade, Odessa High School, Odessa, Texas
- Lluvia Mancha, 9th Grade, South San Antonio High School, San Antonio
Middle School Honorable Mentions
- Jesus Carrasco, 7th Grade, Memorial Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Shaila Gallegos, 7th Grade, J.D. Salinas Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Melissa Garcia, 7th Grade, Domingo Treviño Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Jackie Garza, 7th Grade, Lorenzo De Zavala Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Brianna Nicole Gustamante, 8th Grade, Dwight Middle School, San Antonio
- Paris Isaac, 8th Grade, Robert C. Zamora Middle School, San Antonio
- Adiamond McGreachy, 8th Grade, Captain Manuel Rivera Jr. School PS/MS 279, New York City
- Aysha Melendez, 7th Grade, Dr. Javier Saenz Middle School, La Joya,Texas
- Imelda Montelongo, 7th Grade, Cesar Chavez Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Kenia Perez, 7th Grade, Ann Richards, Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Paula Salgado, 8th Grade, New Open World Academy, Los Angeles
- Jatoya Thigpen, 8th Grade, Manierre Elementary School, Chicago
Read the full news release (2014).
See color highlights flier (2014).
See all the winning essays from 2014.
Six Teens Win 2013 National Essay Contest Awards
The winners are:
- First Place High School Winner – Yesenia Villarreal, 12th Grade, South San Antonio High School
- Second Place High School Winner – Angelica Cavazos, 11th Grade, Odessa High School
- Third Place High School Winner – Heather Perez, 11th Grade, South San Antonio High School
- First Place Middle School Winner – Luis P. Acosta, 8th Grade, Dr. Javier Saenz Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Second Place Middle School Winner – María Del Rosario Zuñiga, 8th Grade, Dr. Javier Saenz Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Third Place Middle School Winner – Pedro Ramirez, 8th Grade, Dr. Javier Saenz Middle School, La Joya, Texas
High School Honorable Mentions
- Steven Andre Mares – 12th Grade, South San Antonio High School, San Antonio
- Elaine Ovalle – 11th grade, Odessa High School, Odessa, Texas
Middle School Honorable Mentions
- José Luis Arrellano – 7th Grade, Ann Richards Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Stephanie Cantu – 7th Grade, Irene M. García Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Alicia Gonzalez – 7th Grade, J.D. Salinas Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Krystal Johnson – 7th Grade, Abraham Kazen Middle School, San Antonio
- Elizabeth Miranda – 8th Grade, Dr. Javier Saenz Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Robert Morales – 7th Grade, Robert C. Zamora Middle School, San Antonio
- Heriberto Quintero – 8th Grade, Dwight Middle School, San Antonio
- Danielle Ramirez – 8th Grade, César E. Chávez Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Cristina Valdez – 8th Grade, Memorial Middle School, La Joya, Texas
Read the full news release (2013).
See color highlights flier (2013).
Six Teens Win 2012 National Essay Contest Awards
The winners are:
- First Place High School Winner – Lanala Hayes, 9th Grade, Phillis Wheatley High School, Houston
- Second Place High School Winner – Sade Harnsberry, 10th Grade, E.L. Furr High School, Houston
- Third Place High School Winner – Omar Galvan, 10 th Grade, E.L. Furr High School, Houston
- First Place Middle School Winner – María Armendariz, 8th Grade, Dr. Javier Saenz Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Second Place Middle School Winner – Yamileth Gonzalez, 8th Grade, Dr. Javier Saenz Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Third Place Middle School Winner – Pedro Sanchez, 8th Grade, Dr. Javier Saenz Middle School, La Joya, Texas
High School Honorable Mentions
- Jacqueline Davis, 11th Grade, South San Antonio High School, San Antonio
- Brittney Solomon – 9th Grade, James Madison High School, Houston
Middle School Honorable Mentions
- Emily Duran – 7th Grade, Memorial Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Rashaard Sheats – 7th Grade, John F. Kennedy Middle School, Atlanta
- Josue Reyes – 7th Grade, Ann Richards Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Atzhiry Gutierrez – 8th Grade, César E. Chávez Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Aylin Kovar – 8th Grade, Alan B. Shepard Middle School, San Antonio
- Alberto Martinez – 7th Grade, Domingo Treviño Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Juanita Flores – 7th Grade, J.D. Salinas Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Julie Alderete – 8th Grade, Lorenzo De Zavala Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Flor Rivera – 7th Grade, Irene M. García Middle School, La Joya, Texas
Read the full news release (2012).
See color highlights flier (2012).
Young Tutors Win 2011 National Essay Contest Award
The six winners are:
- First Place High School Winner – Kayla Rugg, Fuller Performance Learning Center, Cumberland County Schools, North Carolina
- Second Place High School Winner – Nabeel Sattar, Lee High School, Houston
- Third Place High School Winner – Briana Pardue, Odessa High School, Odessa, Texas
- First Place Middle School Winner – Isaac Mata, Ann W. Richards Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Second Place Middle School Winner – Luis Vallejo, Juan D. Salinas Middle School, La Joya, Texas
- Third Place Middle School Winner – Arlette Calderon, Memorial Middle School, La Joya, Texas
Read the full news release (2011).
See color highlights flier (2011).
Six Students Win 2010 National Essay Contest Award
The six winners are:
- First Place High School Winner – Kwame’ Weatherall, Lee High School, Houston ISD, Texas – Also see Kwame’s YouTube video!
- Second Place High School Winner – Andre Merritt, Fuller Performance Learning Center, Cumberland County Schools, North Carolina
- Third Place High School Winner – Kayla Rugg, Fuller Performance Learning Center, Cumberland County Schools, North Carolina
- First Place Middle School Winner – Wendy Ramírez, Dr. Javier Sáenz Middle School, La Joya ISD, Texas
- Second Place Middle School Winner – Phylicia Molette, Kennedy Middle School, Atlanta Public Schools, Georgia
- Third Place Middle School Winner – Valeria Acevedo, Ann Richards Middle School, La Joya ISD, Texas
Read the full news release 2010.
See color highlights flier (2010).
Texas Students Win 2009 National Essay Contest Award
U.S. winners are:
- First Place High School Winner/Grand Prize – Gabriella Guajardo, South San Antonio High School
- Second Place High School Winner – Nubia Cid, South San Antonio High School
- Third Place High School Winner – Nora Isaac, Uvalde High School
- First Place Middle School Winner – Jamilleth Hernandez, Dr. Javier Saenz Middle School, La Joya
- Second Place Middle School Winner – Mary Vidaurri, Memorial Middle School, La Joya
- Third Place Middle School Winner – Crisol Ortuño, Ann Richards Middle School, La Joya
Read the full news release 2009.
See color highlights flier (2009).
This article is about the beverage. For its manufacturer, see The Coca-Cola Company.
"Coca-Cola Classic" redirects here. For the college football game, see Coca-Cola Classic (college football).
Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonatedsoft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company. Originally intended as a patent medicine, it was invented in the late 19th century by John Pemberton and was bought out by businessman Asa Griggs Candler, whose marketing tactics led Coca-Cola to its dominance of the world soft-drink market throughout the 20th century. The drink's name refers to two of its original ingredients, which were kola nuts (a source of caffeine) and coca leaves. The current formula of Coca-Cola remains a trade secret, although a variety of reported recipes and experimental recreations have been published.
The Coca-Cola Company produces concentrate, which is then sold to licensed Coca-Cola bottlers throughout the world. The bottlers, who hold exclusive territory contracts with the company, produce the finished product in cans and bottles from the concentrate, in combination with filtered water and sweeteners. A typical 12-US-fluid-ounce (350 ml) can contains 38 grams (1.3 oz) of sugar (usually in the form of high fructose corn syrup). The bottlers then sell, distribute, and merchandise Coca-Cola to retail stores, restaurants, and vending machines throughout the world. The Coca-Cola Company also sells concentrate for soda fountains of major restaurants and foodservice distributors.
The Coca-Cola Company has on occasion introduced other cola drinks under the Coke name. The most common of these is Diet Coke, along with others including Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola, Diet Coke Caffeine-Free, Coca-Cola Zero Sugar, Coca-Cola Cherry, Coca-Cola Vanilla, and special versions with lemon, lime, and coffee. Based on Interbrand's "best global brand" study of 2015, Coca-Cola was the world's third most valuable brand, after Apple and Google. In 2013, Coke products were sold in over 200 countries worldwide, with consumers drinking more than 1.8 billion company beverage servings each day.
19th-century historical origins
Confederate Colonel John Pemberton, who was wounded in the American Civil War and became addicted to morphine, began a quest to find a substitute for the problematic drug. The prototype Coca-Cola recipe was formulated at Pemberton's Eagle Drug and Chemical House, a drugstore in Columbus, Georgia, originally as a coca wine. He may have been inspired by the formidable success of Vin Mariani, a French coca wine. It is also worth noting that a Spanish drink called "Kola Coca" was presented at a contest in Philadelphia in 1885, a year before the official birth of Coca-Cola. The rights for this Spanish drink were bought by Coca-Cola in 1953.
In 1885, Pemberton registered his French Wine Coca nerve tonic. In 1886, when Atlanta and Fulton County passed prohibition legislation, Pemberton responded by developing Coca-Cola, a nonalcoholic version of French Wine Coca. The first sales were at Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886. It was initially sold as a patent medicine for five cents a glass at soda fountains, which were popular in the United States at the time due to the belief that carbonated water was good for the health. Pemberton claimed Coca-Cola cured many diseases, including morphine addiction, indigestion, nerve disorders, headaches, and impotence. Pemberton ran the first advertisement for the beverage on May 29 of the same year in the Atlanta Journal.
By 1888, three versions of Coca-Cola – sold by three separate businesses – were on the market. A co-partnership had been formed on January 14, 1888 between Pemberton and four Atlanta businessmen: J.C. Mayfield, A.O. Murphey, C.O. Mullahy, and E.H. Bloodworth. Not codified by any signed document, a verbal statement given by Asa Candler years later asserted under testimony that he had acquired a stake in Pemberton's company as early as 1887. John Pemberton declared that the name "Coca-Cola" belonged to his son, Charley, but the other two manufacturers could continue to use the formula.
Charley Pemberton's record of control over the "Coca-Cola" name was the underlying factor that allowed for him to participate as a major shareholder in the March 1888 Coca-Cola Company incorporation filing made in his father's place. Charley's exclusive control over the "Coca-Cola" name became a continual thorn in Asa Candler's side. Candler's oldest son, Charles Howard Candler, authored a book in 1950 published by Emory University. In this definitive biography about his father, Candler specifically states: "..., on April 14, 1888, the young druggist Asa Griggs Candler purchased a one-third interest in the formula of an almost completely unknown proprietary elixir known as Coca-Cola."
The deal was actually between John Pemberton's son Charley and Walker, Candler & Co. – with John Pemberton acting as cosigner for his son. For $50 down and $500 in 30 days, Walker, Candler & Co. obtained all of the one-third interest in the Coca-Cola Company that Charley held, all while Charley still held on to the name. After the April 14 deal, on April 17, 1888, one-half of the Walker/Dozier interest shares were acquired by Candler for an additional $750.
The Coca-Cola Company
In 1892, Candler set out to incorporate a second company; "The Coca-Cola Company" (the current corporation). When Candler had the earliest records of the "Coca-Cola Company" burned in 1910, the action was claimed to have been made during a move to new corporation offices around this time.
After Candler had gained a better foothold on Coca-Cola in April 1888, he nevertheless was forced to sell the beverage he produced with the recipe he had under the names "Yum Yum" and "Koke". This was while Charley Pemberton was selling the elixir, although a cruder mixture, under the name "Coca-Cola", all with his father's blessing. After both names failed to catch on for Candler, by the middle of 1888, the Atlanta pharmacist was quite anxious to establish a firmer legal claim to Coca-Cola, and hoped he could force his two competitors, Walker and Dozier, completely out of the business, as well.
On August 16, 1888, Dr. John Stith Pemberton suddenly died; Asa G. Candler then sought to move swiftly forward to attain his vision of taking full control of the whole Coca-Cola operation.
Charley Pemberton, an alcoholic, was the one obstacle who unnerved Asa Candler more than anyone else. Candler is said to have quickly maneuvered to purchase the exclusive rights to the name "Coca-Cola" from Pemberton's son Charley right after Dr. Pemberton's death. One of several stories was that Candler bought the title to the name from Charley's mother for $300; approaching her at Dr. Pemberton's funeral. Eventually, Charley Pemberton was found on June 23, 1894, unconscious, with a stick of opium by his side. Ten days later, Charley died at Atlanta's Grady Hospital at the age of 40.
In Charles Howard Candler's 1950 book about his father, he stated: "On August 30th , he [Asa Candler] became sole proprietor of Coca-Cola, a fact which was stated on letterheads, invoice blanks and advertising copy."
With this action on August 30, 1888, Candler's sole control became technically all true. Candler had negotiated with Margaret Dozier and her brother Woolfolk Walker a full payment amounting to $1,000, which all agreed Candler could pay off with a series of notes over a specified time span. By May 1, 1889, Candler was now claiming full ownership of the Coca-Cola beverage, with a total investment outlay by Candler for the drink enterprise over the years amounting to $2,300.
In 1914, Margaret Dozier, as co-owner of the original Coca-Cola Company in 1888, came forward to claim that her signature on the 1888 Coca-Cola Company bill of sale had been forged. Subsequent analysis of certain similar transfer documents had also indicated John Pemberton's signature was most likely a forgery, as well, which some accounts claim was precipitated by his son Charley.
On September 12, 1919, Coca-Cola Co. was purchased by a group of investors for $25 million and reincorporated. The company publicly offered 500,000 shares of the company for $40 a share.
In 1986, The Coca-Cola Company merged with two of their bottling operators (owned by JTL Corporation and BCI Holding Corporation) to form Coca-Cola Enterprises Inc. (CCE).
In December 1991, Coca-Cola Enterprises merged with the Johnston Coca-Cola Bottling Group, Inc.
Origins of bottling
The first bottling of Coca-Cola occurred in Vicksburg, Mississippi, at the Biedenharn Candy Company in 1894. The proprietor of the bottling works was Joseph A. Biedenharn. The original bottles were Hutchinson bottles, very different from the much later hobble-skirt design of 1915 now so familiar.
It was then a few years later that two entrepreneurs from Chattanooga, Tennessee, namely Benjamin F. Thomas and Joseph B. Whitehead, proposed the idea of bottling and were so persuasive that Candler signed a contract giving them control of the procedure for only one dollar. Candler never collected his dollar, but in 1899, Chattanooga became the site of the first Coca-Cola bottling company. Candler remained very content just selling his company's syrup. The loosely termed contract proved to be problematic for The Coca-Cola Company for decades to come. Legal matters were not helped by the decision of the bottlers to subcontract to other companies, effectively becoming parent bottlers. This contract specified that bottles would be sold at 5¢ each and had no fixed duration, leading to the fixed price of Coca-Cola from 1886 to 1959.
The first outdoor wall advertisement that promoted the Coca-Cola drink was painted in 1894 in Cartersville, Georgia. Cola syrup was sold as an over-the-counter dietary supplement for upset stomach. By the time of its 50th anniversary, the soft drink had reached the status of a national icon in the USA. In 1935, it was certified kosher by Atlanta Rabbi Tobias Geffen, after the company made minor changes in the sourcing of some ingredients.
The longest running commercial Coca-Cola soda fountain anywhere was Atlanta's Fleeman's Pharmacy, which first opened its doors in 1914. Jack Fleeman took over the pharmacy from his father and ran it until 1995; closing it after 81 years. On July 12, 1944, the one-billionth gallon of Coca-Cola syrup was manufactured by The Coca-Cola Company. Cans of Coke first appeared in 1955.
Main article: New Coke
On April 23, 1985, Coca-Cola, amid much publicity, attempted to change the formula of the drink with "New Coke". Follow-up taste tests revealed most consumers preferred the taste of New Coke to both Coke and Pepsi but Coca-Cola management was unprepared for the public's nostalgia for the old drink, leading to a backlash. The company gave in to protests and returned to a variation of the old formula using high fructose corn syrup instead of cane sugar as the main sweetener, under the name Coca-Cola Classic, on July 10, 1985.
On July 5, 2005, it was revealed that Coca-Cola would resume operations in Iraq for the first time since the Arab League boycotted the company in 1968.
In April 2007, in Canada, the name "Coca-Cola Classic" was changed back to "Coca-Cola". The word "Classic" was removed because "New Coke" was no longer in production, eliminating the need to differentiate between the two. The formula remained unchanged. In January 2009, Coca-Cola stopped printing the word "Classic" on the labels of 16-US-fluid-ounce (470 ml) bottles sold in parts of the southeastern United States. The change is part of a larger strategy to rejuvenate the product's image. The word "Classic" was removed from all Coca-Cola products by 2011.
In November 2009, due to a dispute over wholesale prices of Coca-Cola products, Costco stopped restocking its shelves with Coke and Diet Coke for two months; a separate pouring rights deal in 2013 saw Coke products removed from Costco food courts in favor of Pepsi. Some Costco locations (such as the ones in Tucson, Arizona) additionally sell imported Coca-Cola from Mexico with cane sugar instead of corn syrup from separate distributors. Coca-Cola introduced the 7.5-ounce mini-can in 2009, and on September 22, 2011, the company announced price reductions, asking retailers to sell eight-packs for $2.99. That same day, Coca-Cola announced the 12.5-ounce bottle, to sell for 89 cents. A 16-ounce bottle has sold well at 99 cents since being re-introduced, but the price was going up to $1.19.
In 2012, Coca-Cola resumed business in Myanmar after 60 years of absence due to U.S.-imposed investment sanctions against the country. Coca-Cola's bottling plant will be located in Yangon and is part of the company's five-year plan and $200 million investment in Myanmar. Coca-Cola with its partners is to invest USD 5 billion in its operations in India by 2020. In 2013, it was announced that Coca-Cola Life would be introduced in Argentina that would contain stevia and sugar.
In August 2014 the company announced it was forming a long-term partnership with Monster Beverage, with the two forging a strategic marketing and distribution alliance, and product line swap. As part of the deal Coca-Cola was to acquire a 16.7% stake in Monster for $2.15 billion, with an option to increase it to 25%.
In December 2016, Coca-Cola bought many of the former SABMiller's Coca-Cola operations. In March 2018, Coca-Cola announced it would be launching an alcoholic drink for the first time, a chūhai product in Japan.
A typical can of Coca-Cola (12 fl ounces/355 ml) contains 38 grams of sugar (usually in the form of HFCS), 50 mg of sodium, 0 grams fat, 0 grams potassium, and 140 calories. On May 5, 2014, Coca-Cola said it is working to remove a controversial ingredient, brominated vegetable oil, from all of its drinks.
Formula of natural flavorings
Main article: Coca-Cola formula
The exact formula of Coca-Cola's natural flavorings (but not its other ingredients, which are listed on the side of the bottle or can) is a trade secret. The original copy of the formula was held in SunTrust Bank's main vault in Atlanta for 86 years. Its predecessor, the Trust Company, was the underwriter for the Coca-Cola Company's initial public offering in 1919. On December 8, 2011, the original secret formula was moved from the vault at SunTrust Banks to a new vault containing the formula which will be on display for visitors to its World of Coca-Cola museum in downtown Atlanta.
According to Snopes, a popular myth states that only two executives have access to the formula, with each executive having only half the formula. However, several sources state that while Coca-Cola does have a rule restricting access to only two executives, each knows the entire formula and others, in addition to the prescribed duo, have known the formulation process.
On February 11, 2011, Ira Glass said on his PRI radio show, This American Life, that TAL staffers had found a recipe in "Everett Beal's Recipe Book", reproduced in the February 28, 1979, issue of The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, that they believed was either Pemberton's original formula for Coca-Cola, or a version that he made either before or after the product hit the market in 1886. The formula basically matched the one found in Pemberton's diary. Coca-Cola archivist Phil Mooney acknowledged that the recipe "could ... be a precursor" to the formula used in the original 1886 product, but emphasized that Pemberton's original formula is not the same as the one used in the current product.
Use of stimulants in formula
When launched, Coca-Cola's two key ingredients were cocaine and caffeine. The cocaine was derived from the coca leaf and the caffeine from kola nut, leading to the name Coca-Cola (the "K" in Kola was replaced with a "C" for marketing purposes).
Coca – cocaine
Pemberton called for five ounces of coca leaf per gallon of syrup, a significant dose; in 1891, Candler claimed his formula (altered extensively from Pemberton's original) contained only a tenth of this amount. Coca-Cola once contained an estimated nine milligrams of cocaine per glass. (For comparison, a typical dose or "line" of cocaine is 50–75 mg.) In 1903, it was removed.
After 1904, instead of using fresh leaves, Coca-Cola started using "spent" leaves – the leftovers of the cocaine-extraction process with trace levels of cocaine. Since then, Coca-Cola uses a cocaine-free coca leaf extract prepared at a Stepan Company plant in Maywood, New Jersey.
In the United States, the Stepan Company is the only manufacturing plant authorized by the Federal Government to import and process the coca plant, which it obtains mainly from Peru and, to a lesser extent, Bolivia. Besides producing the coca flavoring agent for Coca-Cola, the Stepan Company extracts cocaine from the coca leaves, which it sells to Mallinckrodt, a St. Louis, Missouri, pharmaceutical manufacturer that is the only company in the United States licensed to purify cocaine for medicinal use.
Long after the syrup had ceased to contain any significant amount of cocaine, in the southeastern U.S., "dope" remained a common colloquialism for Coca-Cola, and "dope-wagons" were trucks that transported it. The traditional shape of the bottle is said to resemble the seed-pod of the coca bush, memorializing the cocaine recipe.
Kola nuts – caffeine
Kola nuts act as a flavoring and the source of caffeine in Coca-Cola. In Britain, for example, the ingredient label states "Flavourings (Including Caffeine)." Kola nuts contain about 2.0 to 3.5% caffeine, are of bitter flavor, and are commonly used in colasoft drinks. In 1911, the U.S. government initiated United States v. Forty Barrels and Twenty Kegs of Coca-Cola, hoping to force Coca-Cola to remove caffeine from its formula. The case was decided in favor of Coca-Cola. Subsequently, in 1912, the U.S. Pure Food and Drug Act was amended, adding caffeine to the list of "habit-forming" and "deleterious" substances which must be listed on a product's label.
Coca-Cola contains 34 mg of caffeine per 12 fluid ounces (9.8 mg per 100 ml).
Franchised production model
The actual production and distribution of Coca-Cola follows a franchising model. The Coca-Cola Company only produces a syrup concentrate, which it sells to bottlers throughout the world, who hold Coca-Cola franchises for one or more geographical areas. The bottlers produce the final drink by mixing the syrup with filtered water and sweeteners, and then carbonate it before putting it in cans and bottles, which the bottlers then sell and distribute to retail stores, vending machines, restaurants, and food service distributors.
The Coca-Cola Company owns minority shares in some of its largest franchises, such as Coca-Cola Enterprises, Coca-Cola Amatil, Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company, and Coca-Cola FEMSA, but fully independent bottlers produce almost half of the volume sold in the world. Independent bottlers are allowed to sweeten the drink according to local tastes.
The bottling plant in Skopje, Macedonia, received the 2009 award for "Best Bottling Company".
Since it announced its intention to begin distribution in Myanmar in June 2012, Coca-Cola has been officially available in every country in the world except Cuba and North Korea. However, it is reported to be available in both countries as a grey import.
Coca-Cola has been a point of legal discussion in the Middle East. In the early 20th century, a fatwa was created in Egypt to discuss the question of "whether Muslims were permitted to drink Coca-Cola and Pepsi cola." The fatwa states: "According to the Muslim Hanefite, Shafi'ite, etc., the rule in Islamic law of forbidding or allowing foods and beverages is based on the presumption that such things are permitted unless it can be shown that they are forbidden on the basis of the Qur'an." The Muslim jurists stated that, unless the Qu'ran specifically prohibits the consumption of a particular product, it is permissible to consume. Another clause was discussed, whereby the same rules apply if a person is unaware of the condition or ingredients of the item in question.
This is a list of variants of Coca-Cola introduced around the world. In addition to the caffeine-free version of the original, additional fruit flavors have been included over the years. Not included here are versions of Diet Coke and Coca-Cola Zero; variant versions of those no-calorie colas can be found at their respective articles.
- Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola (1983–present) – Coca-Cola without the caffeine.
- Coca-Cola Cherry (1985–present) – Coca-Cola with a cherry flavor. Was available in Canada starting in 1996. Originally called Cherry Coke (Cherry Coca-Cola) in North America until 2006.
- New Coke / Coca-Cola II (1985–2002) - An unpopular formula change, remained after the original formula quickly returned and was later rebranded as Coca-Cola II.
- Golden Coca-Cola (2001) was a limited edition produced by Beijing Coca-Cola company to celebrate Beijing's successful bid to host the Olympics.
- Coca-Cola with Lemon (2001–05) – Coca-Cola with a lemon flavor. Available in: Australia, American Samoa, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, China, Denmark, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Iceland, Korea, Luxembourg, Macau, Malaysia, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Réunion, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, United Kingdom, United States, and West Bank-Gaza
- Coca-Cola Vanilla (2002–05; 2007–present) – Coca-Cola with a vanilla flavor. Available in: Austria, Australia, China, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Malaysia, Slovakia, South-Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and United States. It was reintroduced in June 2007 by popular demand.
- Coca-Cola with Lime (2005–present) – Coca-Cola with a lime flavor. Available in Belgium, Netherlands, Singapore, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
- Coca-Cola Raspberry (2005) – Coca-Cola with a raspberry flavor. Was only available in New Zealand. Currently available in the United States and the United Kingdom in Coca-Cola Freestyle fountain since 2009.
- Coca-Cola Black Cherry Vanilla (2006–07) – Coca-Cola with a combination of black cherry and vanilla flavor. It replaced and was replaced by Vanilla Coke in June 2007.
- Coca-Cola Blāk (2006–08) – Coca-Cola with a rich coffee flavor, formula depends on country. Only available in the United States, France, Canada, Czech Republic, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, and Lithuania
- Coca-Cola Citra (2005–present) – Coca-Cola with a citrus flavor. Only available in Bosnia and Herzegovina, New Zealand, and Japan.
- Coca-Cola Orange (2007) – Coca-Cola with an orange flavor. Was available in the United Kingdom and Gibraltar for a limited time. In Germany, Austria, and Switzerland it is sold under the label Mezzo Mix. Currently available in Coca-Cola Freestyle fountain outlets in the United States since 2009 and in the United Kingdom since 2014.
- Coca-Cola Life (2013–present) – A version of Coca-Cola with stevia and sugar as sweeteners rather than just simply sugar.
- Coca-Cola Ginger (2016–present) – A version that mixes in the taste of ginger beer. Available in Australia, New Zealand, and as a limited edition in Vietnam.
The Coca-Cola logo was created by John Pemberton's bookkeeper, Frank Mason Robinson, in 1885. Robinson came up with the name and chose the logo's distinctive cursive script. The writing style used, known as Spencerian script, was developed in the mid-19th century and was the dominant form of formal handwriting in the United States during that period.
Robinson also played a significant role in early Coca-Cola advertising. His promotional suggestions to Pemberton included giving away thousands of free drink coupons and plastering the city of Atlanta with publicity banners and streetcar signs.
Contour bottle design
"Coke bottle" redirects here. For the song, see Coke Bottle (song).
The Coca-Cola bottle, called the "contour bottle" within the company, was created by bottle designer Earl R. Dean and Coca-Cola's general counsel, Harold Hirsch. In 1915, The Coca-Cola Company was represented by their general counsel to launch a competition among its bottle suppliers as well as any competition entrants to create a new bottle for their beverage that would distinguish it from other beverage bottles, "a bottle which a person could recognize even if they felt it in the dark, and so shaped that, even if broken, a person could tell at a glance what it was."
Chapman J. Root, president of the Root Glass Company of Terre Haute, Indiana, turned the project over to members of his supervisory staff, including company auditor T. Clyde Edwards, plant superintendent Alexander Samuelsson, and Earl R. Dean, bottle designer and supervisor of the bottle molding room. Root and his subordinates decided to base the bottle's design on one of the soda's two ingredients, the coca leaf or the kola nut, but were unaware of what either ingredient looked like. Dean and Edwards went to the Emeline Fairbanks Memorial Library and were unable to find any information about coca or kola. Instead, Dean was inspired by a picture of the gourd-shaped cocoa pod in the Encyclopædia Britannica. Dean made a rough sketch of the pod and returned to the plant to show Root. He explained to Root how he could transform the shape of the pod into a bottle. Root gave Dean his approval.
Faced with the upcoming scheduled maintenance of the mold-making machinery, over the next 24 hours Dean sketched out a concept drawing which was approved by Root the next morning. Dean then proceeded to create a bottle mold and produced a small number of bottles before the glass-molding machinery was turned off.
Chapman Root approved the prototype bottle and a design patent was issued on the bottle in November 1915. The prototype never made it to production since its middle diameter was larger than its base, making it unstable on conveyor belts. Dean resolved this issue by decreasing the bottle's middle diameter. During the 1916 bottler's convention, Dean's contour bottle was chosen over other entries and was on the market the same year. By 1920, the contour bottle became the standard for The Coca-Cola Company. A revised version was also patented in 1923. Because the Patent Office releases the Patent Gazette on Tuesday, the bottle was patented on December 25, 1923, and was nicknamed the "Christmas bottle." Today, the contour Coca-Cola bottle is one of the most recognized packages on the planet..."even in the dark!".
As a reward for his efforts, Dean was offered a choice between a $500 bonus or a lifetime job at the Root Glass Company. He chose the lifetime job and kept it until the Owens-Illinois Glass Company bought out the Root Glass Company in the mid-1930s. Dean went on to work in other Midwestern glass factories.
One alternative depiction has Raymond Loewy as the inventor of the unique design, but, while Loewy did serve as a designer of Coke cans and bottles in later years, he was in the French Army the year the bottle was invented and did not emigrate to the United States until 1919. Others have attributed inspiration for the design not to the cocoa pod, but to a Victorianhooped dress.
In 1944, Associate Justice Roger J. Traynor of the Supreme Court of California took advantage of a case involving a waitress injured by an exploding Coca-Cola bottle to articulate the doctrine of strict liability for defective products. Traynor's concurring opinion in Escola v. Coca-Cola Bottling Co. is widely recognized as a landmark case in U.S. law today.
Earl R. Dean's original 1915 concept drawing of the contour Coca-Cola bottle
The prototype never made it to production since its middle diameter was larger than its base, making it unstable on conveyor belts.
Final production version with slimmer middle section.
Karl Lagerfeld is the latest designer to have created a collection of aluminum bottles for Coca-Cola. Lagerfeld is not the first fashion designer to create a special version of the famous Coca-Cola Contour bottle. A number of other limited edition bottles by fashion designers for Coca-Cola Light soda have been created in the last few years.
In 2009, in Italy, Coca-Cola Light had a Tribute to Fashion to celebrate 100 years of the recognizable contour bottle. Well known Italian designers Alberta Ferretti, Blumarine, Etro, Fendi, Marni, Missoni, Moschino, and Versace each designed limited edition bottles.
Pepsi, the flagship product of PepsiCo, The Coca-Cola Company's main rival in the soft drink industry, is usually second to Coke in sales, and outsells Coca-Cola in some markets. RC Cola, now owned by the Dr Pepper Snapple Group, the third largest soft drink manufacturer, is also widely available.
Around the world, many local brands compete with Coke. In South and Central America Kola Real, known as Big Cola in Mexico, is a growing competitor to Coca-Cola. On the French island of Corsica, Corsica Cola, made by brewers of the local Pietra beer, is a growing competitor to Coca-Cola. In the French region of Brittany, Breizh Cola is available. In Peru, Inca Kola outsells Coca-Cola, which led The Coca-Cola Company to purchase the brand in 1999. In Sweden, Julmust outsells Coca-Cola during the Christmas season. In Scotland, the locally produced Irn-Bru was more popular than Coca-Cola until 2005, when Coca-Cola and Diet Coke began to outpace its sales. In the former East Germany, Vita Cola, invented during Communist rule, is gaining popularity.
In India, Coca-Cola ranked third behind the leader, Pepsi-Cola, and local drink Thums Up. The Coca-Cola Company purchased Thums Up in 1993. As of 2004[update], Coca-Cola held a 60.9% market-share in India. Tropicola, a domestic drink, is served in Cuba instead of Coca-Cola, due to a United States embargo. French brand Mecca Cola and British brand Qibla Cola are competitors to Coca-Cola in the Middle East.
In Turkey, Cola Turka, in Iran and the Middle East, Zamzam Cola and Parsi Cola, in some parts of China, China Cola, in Slovenia, Cockta, and the inexpensive Mercator Cola, sold only in the country's biggest supermarket chain, Mercator, are some of the brand's competitors. Classiko Cola, made by Tiko Group, the largest manufacturing company in Madagascar, is a competitor to Coca-Cola in many regions.
See also: Coca-Cola slogans
Coca-Cola's advertising has significantly affected American culture, and it is frequently credited with inventing the modern image of Santa Claus as an old man in a red-and-white suit. Although the company did start using the red-and-white Santa image in the 1930s, with its winter advertising campaigns illustrated by Haddon Sundblom, the motif was already common. Coca-Cola was not even the first soft drink company to use the modern image of Santa Claus in its advertising: White Rock Beverages used Santa in advertisements for its ginger ale in 1923, after first using him to sell mineral water in 1915. Before Santa Claus, Coca-Cola relied on images of smartly dressed young women to sell its beverages. Coca-Cola's first such advertisement appeared in 1895, featuring the young Bostonian actress Hilda Clark as its spokeswoman.
1941 saw the first use of the nickname "Coke" as an official trademark for the product, with a series of advertisements informing consumers that "Coke means Coca-Cola". In 1971 a song from a Coca-Cola commercial called "I'd Like to Teach the World to Sing", produced by Billy Davis, became a hit single.
Coke's advertising is pervasive, as one of Woodruff's stated goals was to ensure that everyone on Earth drank Coca-Cola as their preferred beverage. This is especially true in southern areas of the United States, such as Atlanta, where Coke was born.
Some Coca-Cola television commercials between 1960 through 1986 were written and produced by former Atlanta radio veteran Don Naylor (WGST 1936–1950, WAGA 1951–1959) during his career as a producer for the McCann Ericksonadvertising agency. Many of these early television commercials for Coca-Cola featured movie stars, sports heroes, and popular singers.
During the 1980s, Pepsi-Cola ran a series of television advertisements showing people participating in taste tests demonstrating that, according to the commercials, "fifty percent of the participants who said they preferred Coke actually chose the Pepsi." Statisticians pointed out the problematic nature of a 50/50 result: most likely, the taste tests showed that in blind tests, most people cannot tell the difference between Pepsi and Coke. Coca-Cola ran ads to combat Pepsi's ads in an incident sometimes referred to as the cola wars; one of Coke's ads compared the so-called Pepsi challenge to two chimpanzees deciding which tennis ball was furrier. Thereafter, Coca-Cola regained its leadership in the market.
Selena was a spokesperson for Coca-Cola from 1989 until the time of her death. She filmed three commercials for the company. During 1994, to commemorate her five years with the company, Coca-Cola issued special Selena coke bottles.
The Coca-Cola Company purchased Columbia Pictures in 1982, and began inserting Coke-product images into many of its films. After a few early successes during Coca-Cola's ownership, Columbia began to under-perform, and the studio was sold to Sony in 1989.
Coca-Cola has gone through a number of different advertising slogans in its long history, including "The pause that refreshes", "I'd like to buy the world a Coke", and "Coke is it".
In 2006, Coca-Cola introduced My Coke Rewards, a customer loyalty campaign where consumers earn points by entering codes from specially marked packages of Coca-Cola products into a website. These points can be redeemed for various prizes or sweepstakes entries.
In Australia in 2011, Coca-Cola began the "share a Coke" campaign, where the Coca-Cola logo was replaced on the bottles and replaced with first names. Coca-Cola used the 150 most popular names in Australia to print on the bottles. The campaign was paired with a website page, Facebook page, and an online "share a virtual Coke". The same campaign was introduced to Coca-Cola, Diet Coke & Coke Zero bottles and cans in the UK in 2013.
Coca-Cola has also advertised its product to be consumed as a breakfast beverage, instead of coffee or tea for the morning caffeine.
Main article: The fixed price of Coca-Cola from 1886 to 1959
From 1886 to 1959, the price of Coca-Cola was fixed at five cents, in part due to an advertising campaign.
Throughout the years, Coca-Cola has released limited time collector bottles for Christmas.
The "Holidays are coming!" advertisement features a train of red delivery trucks, emblazoned with the Coca-Cola name and decorated with Christmas lights, driving through a snowy landscape and causing everything that they pass to light up and people to watch as they pass through.
The advertisement fell into disuse in 2001, as the Coca-Cola company restructured its advertising campaigns so that advertising around the world was produced locally in each country, rather than centrally in the company's headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. In 2007, the company brought back the campaign after, according to the company, many consumers telephoned its information center saying that they considered it to mark the beginning of Christmas. The advertisement was created by U.S. advertising agency Doner, and has been part of the company's global advertising campaign for many years.
Keith Law, a producer and writer of commercials for Belfast CityBeat, was not convinced by Coca-Cola's reintroduction of the advertisement in 2007, saying that "I don't think there's anything Christmassy about HGVs and the commercial is too generic."
In 2001, singer Melanie Thornton recorded the campaign's advertising jingle as a single, Wonderful Dream (Holidays are Coming), which entered the pop-music charts in Germany at no. 9. In 2005, Coca-Cola expanded the advertising campaign to radio, employing several variations of the jingle.
In 2011, Coca-Cola launched a campaign for the Indian holiday Diwali. The campaign included commercials, a song, and an integration with Shah Rukh Khan's film Ra.One.
Coca-Cola was the first commercial sponsor of the Olympic games, at the 1928 games in Amsterdam, and has been an Olympics sponsor ever since. This corporate sponsorship included the 1996 Summer Olympics hosted in Atlanta, which allowed Coca-Cola to spotlight its hometown. Most recently, Coca-Cola has released localized commercials for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver; one Canadian commercial referred to Canada's hockey heritage and was modified after Canada won the gold medal game on February 28, 2010 by changing the ending line of the commercial to say "Now they know whose game they're playing".
Since 1978, Coca-Cola has sponsored the FIFA World Cup, and other competitions organized by FIFA. One FIFA tournament trophy, the FIFA World Youth Championship from Tunisia in 1977 to Malaysia in 1997, was called "FIFA — Coca-Cola Cup". In addition, Coca-Cola sponsors the annual Coca-Cola 600 and Coke Zero 400 for the NASCARSprint Cup Series at Charlotte Motor Speedway in Concord, North Carolina and Daytona International Speedway in Daytona, Florida.